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Idia (Hindi: Bhārat), ka a tu kina na Ripabuliki ni Idia (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), e dua na matanitu mai na Ceva Esia. Sa ikoya na ikavitu ni matanitu levu duadua ena vanua, na ikarua ni matanitu populous, kei na veilewelevu demokarasi e vuravura. Vauci mai na Wasa Idia ena ceva, na Wasawasa Arapea ena cevara, kei na toba ni Bengal ena cevatokalau, ka wasea na iyalayala ni vanua ki na Pakisitani ki na ra; Jaina, Nepal, kei Bhutan ki na vualiku; kei Bangladesh kei Myanmar ki na tokalau. Ena Wasa Idia, o Idia e tiko ena a ni Sri Lanka kei Maldives; rau wasea o Andaman kei Nicobar Yanuyanu e dua na iyalayala maritime kei Thailand kei Indonesia.


India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1,211 million in 2011.[1] During the same time, its nominal per capita income increased from US$64 annually to US$1,498, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,[2] India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class.[3] It has a space programme which includes several planned or completed extraterrestrial missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[4] India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.[5] India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbours, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.[6] Among the socio-economic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,[7] and rising levels of air pollution.[8] India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots.[9] Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area.[10] India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture,[11] is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

Veitikina[veisau | edit source]

  1. Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 219, 262, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  2. Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 8, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  3. Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012), A Concise History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press, pp. 265–266, ISBN 978-1-107-02649-0
  4. Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012), A Concise History of Modern India, Cambridge University Press, p. 266, ISBN 978-1-107-02649-0
  5. Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 216, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  6. (a) "Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent", Encyclopaedia Britannica, archived from the original on 13 August 2019, retrieved 15 August 2019, Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947.;
    (b) Pletcher, Kenneth, "Aksai Chin, Plateau Region, Asia", Encyclopaedia Britannica, archived from the original on 2 April 2019, retrieved 16 August 2019, Aksai Chin, Chinese (Pinyin) Aksayqin, portion of the Kashmir region, ... constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India;
    (c) C. E Bosworth (2006), "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6, KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partly by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947
  7. Narayan, Jitendra; John, Denny; Ramadas, Nirupama (2018). "Malnutrition in India: status and government initiatives". Journal of Public Health Policy. 40 (1): 126–141. doi:10.1057/s41271-018-0149-5. ISSN 0197-5897. PMID 30353132.
  8. Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Dey, Sagnik; et al. (2019). "The impact of air pollution on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017". The Lancet Planetary Health. 3 (1): e26–e39. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30261-4. ISSN 2542-5196. PMC 6358127. PMID 30528905.
  9. India, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 2019
  10. Jha, Raghbendra (2018), Facets of India's Economy and Her Society Volume II: Current State and Future Prospects, Springer, p. 198, ISBN 978-1-349-95342-4
  11. Karanth, K. Ullas; Gopal, Rajesh (2005), "An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India", in Rosie Woodroffe; Simon Thirgood; Alan Rabinowitz (eds.), People and Wildlife, Conflict Or Co-existence?, Cambridge University Press, p. 374, ISBN 978-0-521-53203-7